Depending on which type of tile it will tell us how it is fixed and what Adhesive and grout are used.
Depending on which tile is used for each job, we also need the right tools for the job. In the following we will describe the different features and characteristics of types of ceramic tiles mainly being used today.
We can classify tiles in many ways:
On the surface; glazed ceramics (GL) or unglazed (UGL), exterior or interior, floors or walls, and even by the support structure (Biskit); porous or nonporous. But what we will do, is discover each material and their respective features.
Depending which ceramic tile we choose for each job, we also need the right tool.
- WALL TILES: Ceramic tiles for indoor use. The main body is porous and can be white, grey or red (mostly White is dominant in the market). It is obtained by semidry pressing technique and with one or several firing (single firing or double firing).
The surface is glazed with a wide range of colors and special decorations produced by different techniques (stickers, screen printing, hand painted, etc.). The water absorption capacity of this product is the highest and is between 12 and 20%, although in some cases can reach 25 %.
Depending on the glaze the hardness of the tile changes, but is usually less than 5 on the Mohs scale, and with a breaking load between 300 and 1200 N. The format range of this material is very wide, from the 15x15 and 20x20 sizes up to 60x30 and 40x20.
Both the OPTIMA cutter as MAXIMA are perfect for this material and the chosen scoring wheel we will 6mm.
- FLOOR TILES: These tiles are mainly used for tiling floors although in some cases and with the right Adhesive can be used on walls but weight issues may occur. (unlike wall tiles) can be placed both indoors and outdoors and are formed mainly by the method of semidry pressing, although some cases extruded clay, they are all subjected to a single firing (single firing).
We can find floor tiles with white-clay body, and models with red-clay body (Red the most common) the same as on wall tiles, the tile surface is glazed on floor tiles but in this case, unlike the wall tiles where the glaze is usually flat or high gloss you can find various levels of roughness to the surface of floor tiles for nonslip purposes.
Tiles with a nonslip surface can be more difficult to cut and may need a stronger tile cutter than for cutting wall tiles.
The hardness off floor tiles is often between 3 and 8 according to the Mohs hardness scale, while the smoother the texture of the surface the less strength the tile will have.
The water absorption capacity it is between 2 and 10%. The breaking load ranges between 1000 and 2300 N.
There are many different sizes for floor tiles but now predominate 30x30 and 40x40's, but the trend is increasing up to 50x50 and 60x60 formats.
For this material you have the option of choosing between the OPTIMA and MAXIMA, always with a scoring wheel of 10 mm.
- PORCELAIN TILES: This is today’s latest trend in both floor and wall tiling. Unlike other ceramic tiles formed by various inorganic materials, porcelain tiles are made of a single material under the pressing system or combination of materials in the process of double pressing load (very high pressure) This material is the most versatile of all, it allows us both indoor and out door uses and as we said above can be placed on walls and floors.
The porcelain tiles are very strong, have a tensile strength of 2000 N and material with thicknesses of 15 mm can reach 8000 N. Porcelain is very dense which makes the porosity of the material negligible, and therefore have a water absorption capacity lower than 05% and most of porcelain tiles that are now on the market have levels much lower in absorption (0.02 and 0.05%), which means we can have a porcelain tile almost waterproof, and very resistant to frost and temperature changes.
Porcelain tiles are available in several versions: Polished, unpolished (also called full bodied) or even glazed.(not full bodies). The hardness of unpolished porcelain tiles is greater than the polished, the hardness is classed between 6 and 8 for non-polished 3 and 5 for polished.
We mentioned above, that the trend of using this material is increasing every day and therefore the range of formats is also growing, ie 10x10, 20x20, 30x30 and 40x40, but large format tiles are making their way into the market faster and we can see large format tiles 50x50, 60x60, 80x80 and 120x60. For increasingly bigger tiles the MAXIMA is the tool to use. It has the breaker strength and the bed length to cope with these large format tiles.
The Scoring wheels for the MAXIMA on smooth Porcelain would be the 8mm wheel and on the rough faces Porcelain be 18mm.
- QUARRY TILE: A product with a very low porosity, giving it a capacity of absorption of water that can be between 1 and 3%.
This type of tile is used mainly outside but is used inside in older buildings.
It is a very simple material and is mainly used unglazed but can be found with decors but mainly plain. Quarry tiles can be sealed which will make the porosity less or waxed for décor purposes.
The quarry tiles are mostly formed by extrusion which gives high hardness (between 5 and 7 on the Mohs scale) and resistance (tensile strength between 2000 and 5000 N). The best option to cut this material is MAXIMA cutter along with 10 and 22 mm scoring wheels.
Following these tips we can increase the quality of your jobs and achieve the best quality and professional finish.